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(en) Canada, ucl-saguenay, Collectif Emma Goldman -[1919-1921]100 years ago: Fiume, the last pirate utopia (fr, it, pt)[machine translation]

Date Thu, 2 Jan 2020 09:34:26 +0200

Here is the third text in a series of three dealing with piracy. ---- " From the experiences of the inter-war period, I would rather remember the crazy republic of Fiume[...]It was in a way the last of the pirate utopias (or the only modern example) - and perhaps even the very first modern TAZ. "- Hakim Bey ---- The incredible story of Fiume ---- During the Versailles Treaty of 1919, the victors refused to Italy the annexation of the city of Fiume (today Rijeka in Croatia) and Dalmatia, however promised in 1915 so that the kingdom would side with the Triple -Agreement (United Kingdom, France, Russia). The American president Woodrow Wilson proposes rather to make Fiume an independent state in order to shelter the seat of the future League of Nations.
The Italian poet and adventurer Gabriele D'Annunzio then spoke of " mutilated victory ". In April 1919, he created the "League of Fiume" intended to " defend against the League of Nations, all minds yearning for freedom, all peoples tormented by injustice and oppression ". (1)

On September 12, 1919, D'Annunzio launched an assault on Fiume at the head of approximately 2,600 Arditi, nationalists and veterans. The occupying American, English and French troops withdrew without having exchanged a single shot. However, the Italian government is dissociating itself from this initiative. The poet then appealed for the solidarity of the Italian people. Immediately, the future Duce (Benito Mussolini, socialist activist converts to nationalism and founder of fascism) takes charge of organizing a fundraiser to allow the insurgents to carry out their project, finally managing to collect nearly 3 million lire. (2)

After the failure of negotiations with the Italian government, D'Annunzio proclaimed on August 12, 1920 the Italian Regency of Carnaro, using the name of the gulf which borders the seaside town. The USSR is the only country to recognize the new "state".

During a correspondence exchanged with the anarchist Randolfo Vella, D'Annunzio explains that he is for "communism without dictatorship" and that his intention is to make this city "a spiritual island from which action can radiate, eminently communist, in the direction of all the oppressed nations ". (1) For his part, the anarchist writer Hakim Bey mentions in TAZ, Temporary Autonomous Zone, that Fiume quickly becomes a refuge: " Artists, gypsies, adventurers, anarchists, fugitives and stateless refugees, homosexuals ... arrived in crowd at Fiume. The party never stopped. Each morning D'Annunzio read poems and each evening a concert took place, followed by fireworks. "(P.67)

The "Carnaro Charter"

On August 27, 1920, the " Carnaro Charter ", written by the revolutionary trade unionist Alceste De Ambris in collaboration with D'Annunzio, was promulgated. It recognizes " the sovereignty of all citizens without distinction of sex, race, language, class, religion ... ". In addition, " only the assiduous producers of common wealth and the creators of common power are full citizens ".

At the military level, the " Carnaro Charter " provides that " in times of peace and security, the Regency does not keep the army mobilized; but the whole nation remains armed "(1) regardless of gender. The Regency takes its cue from the Arditi, heroic Italian figures of the First World War. They were made up of free soldiers and adventurers. An army of free men and women who break with the discipline and hierarchy of traditional armies. Command is exercised by a council, like the "soldiers' councils" during the German Revolution of 1918 and the Soviets in Russia (before the betrayal of the Bolsheviks).

A pirate economy ...

The money of the Italian Regency of the Carnaro does not come from taxes but from the flights accomplished by the Uscochi as well as donations from supporters and donors. Hakim Bey underlines that: " The navy (made up of deserters and anarchist Unionist sailors from Milan) took the name of Uscochi, after the name of the missing pirates who lived on islands off the local coast[...]The modern Uscochi succeeded in some smoldering blows: wealthy Italian merchant ships suddenly offered the republic a future ... ". (p.66)

Italian regular army ends ' permanent party '

D'Annunzio refuses to recognize the Treaty of Rapallo (which establishes Fiume as a free state and fixes the borders between the kingdoms of Yugoslavia and Italy). The Italian government issued an ultimatum to D'Annunzio and urged him to leave the city with his supporters before December 24, 1920. The poet maintained his positions and Italy bombed the city. This event is known in Italy as the "Natale di sangue" or the bloody Christmas.

D'Annunzio, precursor of fascism?

At that time, Italy was plagued by frustration and the desire for radical change. Emerging fascism is causing confusion among many sincere revolutionary militants. " We must not forget or deny that a number of anti-fascist militants from the Arditi del Popolo and proletarian self-defense groups in Italy were at first close to fascism known as" diciannovista "and" sansepolcrismo ", having the characteristics of a leftist and progressive movement in the Italian context, before it turned into an imperialist and dictatorial movement under Mussolini. "(1)

Mussolini takes up many D'Annunzio ideas, including corporatism, the black uniform and oratory techniques for mobilizing crowds. In fact, as Hakim Bey points out: " Mussolini himself seduces the poet. When D'Annunzio understood his error, it was already too late. "(P.67)

The other two texts in the series: Neo-fascism and piracy or confusionism at work and Women and pirates

(1) http://redskins-limoges.over-blog.org/2013/12/fiume-1919-1920-la-derni%C3%A8re-des-utopies-pirates.html

(2) https://philitt.fr/2015/09/30/fascisme-drogue-et-revolution-lepisode-du-carnaro/

by Collectif Emma Goldman

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