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(en) Sicilia Libertaria: Agri-food and Food Sovereignty - the bluff of made in Italy (Part two) (ca, de, it, pt, tr)[machine translation]

Date Thu, 8 Feb 2024 08:13:40 +0200

The 2023 "State of the World" report by FAO and "Power shift" by the "Global alliance for the future" reveal the hidden costs of industrial food systems: 12,700 billion dollars, equal to a third of global GDP, for 70% caused by health effects: it is the cost of living. Agroindustrial food is the commodity that devours us. ---- Not only. The study published in June 2023 in the authoritative journal "Environmental research letter" analyzes 58 years of data on the climate, production and income of 109 crops in 127 countries and concludes that "a greater diversity of crops reduces the negative impacts of droughts and high temperatures on crops, increases resilience to weather and soil conditions". 41 thousand animal and plant species are at risk of extinction. (Source: Crop diversity buffers the impact of droughts and high temperatures on food production; iucn.org)

Nonetheless, the EU supports high-yield agriculture per hectare (intensive monoculture) with the fake that it will free up land for biodiversity at the same time as solving the problem of world hunger (which is instead inequality in access to food): "in Europe, we will be able to return 75% of our agricultural surface to nature without this leading to cold winters, food and economic scarcity", said the Dutch MEP Nilufer Gundogan: it is the techno-optimism which, with the theory of soil saving, states that increasing productivity favors the protection of biodiversity, according to the principle of sustainable intensification in agriculture. On the contrary, land sharing presupposes a widespread, non-intensive agricultural model that promotes biodiversity within the cultivated areas; biodiversity depends on complex interactions between the different types of land use, the use of which cannot be delimited within fences: an insect, a pollinator, knows no artificial boundaries and its ability to survive is determined by the biodiversity conditions of the land cultivated and non-cultivated. The high use of pesticides and herbicides, in increasing quantities every year to ensure high productivity, causes the local and permanent extinction of living things in cultivated areas and through the contamination of air and water the extinction spreads everywhere. In European protected areas there is a 75% reduction in the biomass of flying insects and proportionally of insectivorous birds due to contamination from toxic cultivated environments. The story telling of high-yield agriculture is the narrative of the endless hunt for profit.

On the contrary, a non-extractive, organic agriculture, based on the ecology of not only plant populations and agrobiodiversity, is not a cultivation method but a community of the territory resulting from a radical social transformation that abolishes the agrarian individualism of private land ownership and returns Agriculture to the community as a common good, whose activity is a cognitive-productive work shared by the whole society which thus exercises the right to knowledge and generates food sovereignty, or the ability to be the guardian of biodiversity and environmental heritage, of an agroecology based on complexity, on the right to food security and access to food, on energy control exercised with delegation to farmers. The rejection of monoculture in the field in favor of agricultural diversity mirrors the overcoming of the capitalist dogma of one-dimensional progress of not only agricultural models, of technical, cultural, economic and social uniformity and uniqueness.

Food sovereignty has as its incipit the cognitive, reproductive and collective ownership re-appropriation of seeds, their free exchange and genetic adaptation to environmental conditions; collective ownership and free trade are now prohibited by law, peasant seeds confined to the registers of conservation varieties and genome banks. By seeds we do not mean those of the multinational seed companies as they are created and produced specifically for industrial agriculture, but we mean the seeds of traditional varieties, the result of centuries-old adaptations, resilient and adaptive to the changing conditions of the territory: "due to cross-breeding and selection natural, the genetic composition of the traditional organic seed harvested at the end of the season is never the same as that sown, so the population evolves by progressively adapting to the environment in which it grows." (Salvatore Ceccarelli - Stefania Grando, geneticists, Sowing the future, Giunti Ed. 2019). Seeds are the basis of the food supply chain since food comes from seeds and our health is derived from the quality of food. Whoever owns them controls life.

Food sovereignty implies another social way of understanding the Territory, which is no longer the geographical space defined by political-administrative borders where a public body exercises its authority, the place where the inhabitants carry out activities, profits and profits, from which they extract materials and products. The Territory is a natural subject part of an ineliminable world of life relationships of the local community. It is an eco-systemic unit within which environmental resources and their users are integrated so that the forms of a balanced and inseparable totality are created. The territory is the subject of Rights through communities, another way of possessing where properties are inalienable, indivisible, non-inheritable. The Rights pertain to the object (water, forest, land, etc.) and not to the subject (natural or legal person), therefore ownership or hierarchical dominion of the subject over the object is not exercised; the subjects are only usufructuaries and must guarantee the integrity of the territory and its resources for future generations. The territory is a common good, a collective heritage whose governance and management are based on consensual decisions and the delegation of authority with direct democracy.

Roberto Brioschi

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